What is “Pilonidal Sinus”?
Pilonidal Sinus (or Pilonidal Cyst or Tailbone Cyst or Coccygeal Fistula), is a cyst (or multiple cysts) located in the upper cleft of the buttock, above the sacrum, containing hair that can form abscesses.
Is a fairly common disease, mainly affecting young while male (15-30 years old) but can affect also female patients. Risk factors are: obesity (body mass index of 30 or more), above-average amount of body hair, family history of the condition, and a job that requires driving or sitting down for long periods.
There are two different theories regarding the etiology of the disease
- The congenital theory states that pilonidal sinus is the result of a mistake in the migration of cells during embryological life: in fact, some cells belonging to the skin remain somehow trapped close to the bone, producing hair under the skin and subsequently getting cyclically inflamed and infected
- The acquired theory says that the cyst is simply the results of skin hair and debris trapped in the pores of the skin.
Whatever pilonidal sinus etiology might be, is a very fastidious disease, causing pain and embarrassing purulent discharge.
Main symptoms are:
- pain in mid buttocks groove, especially when sitting
- swelling and redness around the area
- foul smelling discharge, sometimes together with blood and hair
The patient can present in an acute phase - with an abscess – or in chronic condition.
When the abscess is present, antibiotic therapy is mandatory and surgical incision and drainage are needed in order to solve the local sepsis.
On the contrary, if the patient presents with a non-infected sinus, elective minimally invasive treatment is pursued and the patient can resume daily activities the same day after surgery.
It is very important to treat this disease in an early stage, before the sinus becomes larger and multiple, therefore requiring a more important surgical approach.
Dr. Valentina is proud to offer – as one of the first in the UAE – a new minimally invasive treatment for pilonidal sinus called EPSiT.