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Anal fissure

What is an anal fissure?

Anal fissure is a common disease that affects people of all ages.

An anal fissure is a tear of the anal skin that cause itching, discomfort, bleeding, and dull pain during and after defecation.

It can be acute or “short – term”, which heals by itself in few days, and chronic or “long – term” with no healing in 12 weeks.

When a patient has a chronic anal fissure, and a proper medical therapy has been already attempted, surgery is advised. 

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What causes an anal fissure?

Anal fissures can be cause by:

·       Passage of large and/or hard stool

·       Repeated diarrhea

·       Childbirth that can also cause trauma to the anal canal

·       Prolonged muscular spasm

In fact, the extra tension in the two muscular rings (sphincters) controlling the anus may cause fissure as well. The outer anal sphincter is under your conscious control but the inner sphincter is not. This muscle is under pressure, or tension, all of the time for keeping the anal canal closed. If the pressure increases too much, it can cause spasm and reduce blood flow to the anus, leading to a fissure. This pressure can also prevent the fissure from healing.

 

What are the symptoms?

·       A sharp burning pain during bowel movements, lasting from few minutes to several hours after a bowel movement

·       Anal bleeding, normally is a small spot of bright blood on toilet tissue or drops in the toilet bowl. The blood from a fissure is separate from the stool, not mixed with it

·       Anal itching and peri-anal skin irritation

·       Sentinel polyp – if anal fissure is left untreated, a small skin tag called – “sentinel polyp” will at the apex of the fissure, it can reach a large size and becomes noticeable by the patient

·       Feeling of a partial blockage in the anus. The fissure irritates the muscle that is reacting with involuntary spasm which makes physically difficult to pass stool.

Treatment for anal fissure..[read more]